Adelaide Kane was born in Claremont, Western Australia. She is half-Scottish on her mother’s side. Kane had been acting since she was 6. She was picked to join the cast of Neighbours as Lolly Allen after she entered a competition run by Dolly magazine in 2006. She was given a three-month contract with the show and left her class at St Hilda’s Anglican School for Girls to move to Melbourne, where Neighbours is produced. In December 2006, Kane announced that she would be leaving the show after her contract was not renewed. At the time of the announcement, Kane had not yet appeared as Lolly.

From March to December 2009, Kane portrayed Tenaya on Power Rangers RPM, part of the long-running Power Rangers franchise. In April 2010, Kane starred in the television film Secrets of the Mountain on NBC. Also in 2010, Kane starred in the web series Pretty Tough. In November 2012, it was announced that Adelaide had joined the cast of Teen Wolf as Cora. In February 2013, Kane was cast as Mary, Queen of Scots in the CW drama series Reign.